Etruscans Bronze Mirrors as Etruscan-Russian Bilinguas

The back side of the Etruscan bronze mirrors contains the drawings where there are two types of inscriptions: obvious (Etruscan) and unobvious (Russian). The latter’s were constructed from the different signs (mainly in Cyrillic) of drawing details, for example of the hero’s hair curlicues, of the clothes’ folds, of the boot-stripes and so on. Partly some words in Etruscan and in Russian coincident in sence, and it give us seldom possibility to take the exact translation of an Etruscan word into Russian, the ancient language of international communication. The Etruscan language can be estimate as East Slavic one, resembling the Belarusian. Its name was “Etrusetska mova”, i.e. “Etruscan language”. From the Etruscan mirrors we can obtain important information.

  • Abstract
  • How to construct the unified alphabet
  • Features of the offered alphabet
  • The classical approach
  • Zackary Mayani
  • Drawing of a military duel on a vase
  • Inscriptions on playing dices
  • P.P. Oreshkins readings
  • Mirror from Vulchi
  • The second Etruscan bronze mirror
  • The third bronze mirror
  • The fourth Etruscan mirror
  • Urn-hut from Alban hills
  • Bibliography
  • Abstract

    The back side of the Etruscan bronze mirrors contains the drawings where there are two types of inscriptions: obvious (Etruscan) and unobvious (Russian). The latter’s were constructed from the different signs (mainly in Cyrillic) of drawing details, for example of the hero’s hair curlicues, of the clothes’ folds, of the boot-stripes and so on. Partly some words in Etruscan and in Russian coincident in sence, and it give us seldom possibility to take the exact translation of an Etruscan word into Russian, the ancient language of international communication. The Etruscan language can be estimate as East Slavic one, resembling the Belarusian. Its name was “Etrusetska mova”, i.e. “Etruscan language”. From the Etruscan mirrors (which were the caricatures on the Roman State) we can obtain important political information about other states, mayor of which were Slavic, for example Phrygia, Frakia, Misia, Greek land, Samo and so on. We can pay attention on the chronological shift between the events in Etruria and ones in the other Slavic countries in approximately 950 years (i.e. third century BC for Etruria corresponds the middle of the seventh century AD for the other countries). We can see as well the linguistic features of the Etruscan: the strong A-pronunciation (instead of O), so called “reverse” of two sounds, absence of some vowels etc.

    Having considered some alphabets of the Etruscan letters found in texts and offered by different Etruscologists including Etruscologists of a Slavic origin, I can tell the following: contrary to lulling opinion of such Etruscologists, believing, that they are able to read on Etruscan language wonderful by virtue of that the Etruscan alphabet is familiar to them very long time ago, the uniform artificial Etruscan alphabet (elaborated by the scholars) is not present till now whereas the founded on Etruscan artifacts common Italian alphabet obviously is not so rich as Etruscan one. Moreover, it is not known even, how many in appropriate to Etruscan texts the alphabet should be exist sound values and graphemes. The number of different sound values varies in them from 24 up to 27, number of graphemes - from 50 up to 165.

    Clearly that if one does not have precisely verified alphabet it is senselessly to undertake decoding the Etruscan language. Shall I try to illustrate this idea on an example? We allow that we have decided to write down by the Etruscan letters two Russian words, the MAN and the WOMAN ( ). Then, according to R. Peshich they should look as , according to P.P. Oreshkin the words would read as and , according to Martin Zhunkovich - as and , according to Thaddeus Wolanski - as and whereas classical etruscologist would understand, that before him are present the words and that is though in the latter case it would be read incorrect, but nevertheless it is closer on sounding to the case conceived to us than under alphabets of other authors. It is possible that namely therefore the classical concept in our days dominates in etruscology. But all the same it would be incorrect reading.

    As we see the traditional opinion on a ratio of sounds and marks represents nevertheless very approximate alphabet, and seeing that Etruscologists for one year may read no more than 2-3 new words that is not simply read, but understand their sense, such approximations is for us not tolerant. The alphabet should be specified, advanced, and for this purpose on each of the offered values it is necessary to consider on 2-3 examples. Having compared them, it is possible to understand what offer passes, and what is not present. And only then, when will be revealed all features of a spelling of a word, it will be possible to be accepted for designing the Etruscan alphabet which will provide correct reading the Etruscan words.

    The Etruscan artificial alphabet offered by the author

    Fig. 1. The Etruscan artificial alphabet offered by the author.

    How to construct the unified alphabet

    As we have already noticed, offers on reading this or that mark are a lot. Only it is necessary to compare them with each other, believing that the clear and understandable Slavic word should turn out and, in particular, from the point of view of Russian. Thus, the special section on finding out of value of not clear marks arises - and it refers to as decoding. But as the basic decoding is already made and the basic file of marks does not cause doubts, we shall name this process “the decoding of doubtful marks”. I have made such section, however it(he) appeared approximately twice more largely any another, has demanded consideration about 20 examples, both with Italian and with the Greek reading, but the main thing, reading of each of determined marks though and seemed enough the simple procedure quite checked and unequivocal, however acquired such details in the reading, commenting general orientations of an inscription and revealing of grammatical features and different interpretations, that actually alphabetic part of researches appeared very modest and imperceptible. Besides the same examples then should appear by consideration of my or another's decoding that was absolutely unjustified. And to go deep in grammatical and culturological jungle only to find out this or that alphabetic value at this stage of research too looked completely unjustified. Therefore I inform only results, not being allocated from a lot of my predecessors which too have get only the completed alphabet, at all not explaining the reader how they came to such conclusion. Eventually the alphabet is only the working tool and if it allows making the sure and intelligent readings the same readings and are its best check. And as it to make it remains a part of creative laboratory of the scientist.

    I repeat that I basically have united the basic innovations of my predecessors, having given only a few the supervision. As if to a transliteration I prefer to follow in this question P.P. Oreshkin that is to give it as Cyrillic.

    Features of the offered alphabet

    As we see, the offered alphabet contains 45 positions that at once give out its Slavic belonging. It is possible, that more marks here are allocated, than it is necessary for transfer of sounds in the Etruscan language, however the given alphabet has preliminary character and its validity will be checked up by the subsequent readings. It is natural, that many values of letters were taken at previous researchers so when the question will be features of their methods of decoding, will be told and about the innovations offered by them. The part of values, however, is offered by me as a result of reflections above decoding. On these I have offered 45 positions 63 various graphemes that it is reasonable enough, taking into account, that the Etruscan sometimes used variants of alphabetic marks as their alphabet in comparison with others was not quite determined.

    The columns contain the following information: the first has marks which, in my opinion, appeared the most ancient. These are various points and their combinations with letters of the Italian alphabet (not modern, but of ancient Italia). The second column contains enough frequently meeting marks at performance of inscriptions by the Italian alphabet. The third column contains Etruscan marks at performance of Etruscan texts by the Greek alphabet. The fourth column gives a Latin transliteration, whereas the fifth column undesignated in the figure has a Cyrillic transliteration. However in given Etruscan alphabet all the same it is more marks, than letters in Cyrillic one.

    As we see, here there are letters and for all sounds of Slavic vocalism (A, O, , , , , , ), and for the sounds with J (, , , ), and for the sibilant pair (, , , , , , , , , , , ), both for , and for X though here there are no letters for and , and the letter Q has reading . Differently, the offered alphabet is much more exact, as it is represented to me, transfers both sounds, and to the graphics of the Etruscan texts, than previous, that enables to understand graphic shape, sounding and the contents of the Etruscan inscriptions much more full, more precisely and more sur, than it needed to be made to my predecessors.

    I shall notice, that if I have not offered a new artificial Etruscan alphabet, I a little than differed from many generations of Etruscologists, for which “Etruscan is not readable”. And at me as I hope, Etruscan will not only be read and to be read easily, but also to be declined, conjugated and form normal Slavic sentences with sense strictly checked by another Slavic languages.

    The classical approach

    For almost two centuries of the Etruscology development the Etruscan texts basically Germans and Italians scholars tried to read, about two tens researchers. We are interested with revealing the reasons on which the classical approach not only could not result in the sure reading and easy understanding of the Etruscan texts, but also was not capable to make it basically.

    Figure on an Etruscan vase

    Fig. 2. Figure on an Etruscan vase

    Zackary Mayani

    Among all Etruscologists last time especially allocate French researcher Zackary Mayani with his book “Les Etrusques Commencent a Parler” Paris, 1961 about which rather highly has responded Agness Carr Vogin, having told, that his book has challenged to traditional hypotheses in the scientific environment. Being it is intrigued with so flatter estimation of the colleague, I have hurried to check up his surprising opening. Certainly, it is the easiest to do it then when there are certain Etruscan texts and when researcher in detail describes each step on his reading and interpretation. Such opportunity was presented: in quality fig. 10 of Mayani book (MAY, p. 72) the stage of fight on an Etruscan vase was represented. Classical Etruscan alphabet on which the researcher based, was already known, so the transliteration of the texts received by the researcher easily could be foreseen, however process of reading that is the most essential and significant moment of decoding distinguishing one researcher from another one represented doubtless interest. Now we had an opportunity to reveal it.

    Drawing of a military duel on a vase

    That writes prominent French Etruscologists whose book was specially translated to Russian and was published. I shall bring the long citation that the reader could realize all features of a problem solved by him. Though he has divided this citation into a number of fragments, I shall notice that Z. Mayani's text is written as rather art prose and read with the big interest: “One winter day in the afternoon in National library I for the first time was declined above figures on Greek and Etruscan vases, collected and issued by E. Gerhard more than 120 years ago (GER). Perhaps, they were was those ancient engravings which once, 25 years back, I have seen in library Mazarini. In these figures were very well represented charming small scenes taken of the Greek mythology. I paid my attention on one of these scenes on table CXXIV - fight between two heroes which were especially drawn. Left of them held an a bo) and a cudgel, right was armed with a spear, a sword and a board. Outcome of fight might seem not clear, but figure through itse dynamism, appear, showed that the person in the wolf skin has just let out from an bow an arrow which has wounded his opponent. This detail is not present in figure - you see that Etruscan graphic genius was not the slave of naturalism. Three words accompany with this figure (fig. 18), signs about a great skill. Two words are names of heroes, Adetes and Kaon, but we now are interested with the mythological content of this scene (MAY, p. 71-72). With the other words, at the left is Adetes, on the right is Kaon. That these words mean proper name, Z. Mayani does not doubt even for one second.

    Now we shall consider a situation in our way. I understand an assumption of an opportunity of rearrangement of letters as our way, tracings of some letters implicitly, as a detail of figure, and also an opportunity resounding and devocalizations agreeable, that is inherent in all to the Indo-European languages, but first of all Slavic.

    The first inscription, that is at the left character, is read as usually, from right to left (instead of from left to right as Z. Mayani believes), however a bowstring of a bow forms an additional line and the additional letter, namely ; two latter letters are rearranged, it is necessary to read not L, but LO, one letter not fully written, and at its level is visible the bottom jaw of a bear graze serving as a helmet and it determines the letter of G. Inscription STRELOG, that is ARROWS WARRIOR where last sound K completely lawfully is exposed resounding. It entirely proves to be true by a picture: really, AN ARCHILLER lets out an arrow that is he is an arrows warrior. However the same inscription is duplicated on his breast by Cyrillic where it is written completely clearly, (POINTERS), already through K. Thus, before us is a typical bilingual text that is an inscription at once in two languages, Russian and Etruscan, and differences make only one letter. The situation is better than that basically may not develop. Thus, applied by me on the first sight excessive manipulations on revealing of a superfluous mast at the letter from figure on a bowstring, rearrangement of letters O and L, to perusal of a part of figure of a head etc. are not idle vanity around EASILY READABLE TEXT, but compulsory procedures on it) normal reading. Differently, if we want to read EASILY, we may allow ourselves it but then the sense read from us will leave; if we shall read DIFFICULTLY, with observance of a lot of shifts, it will BE already rather EASY for us to understand sense read. So, having made a number of procedures which I offer to name reduction of the text to a normal kind, we receive a noun in the Nominative case, and this will be common noun, and not so strange proper name as Adetes.

    The second word near right archiller, I read as two, at Etruscan here is written words TKA ON (HE HAS POKED) where as the first letter the part of figure too acts, namely a forward part of a crest on a helmet. Word is aorist from a verb TO STICK (or TO POKE) - (HAS STICKED), and it is followed with completely Russian personal pronoun OH (HE) which has not changed at all in Etruscan language. Thus, before us not proper name Kaon, but the sentence HE HAS STICKED. This sense completely precisely corresponds to the image for the soldier with a spear and a board has recoiled back after drawing impact.

    Already at this level is clearly, that reading proper name Adetes and Kaon is false, and that any mythology in these “names” is not present, as the left character is described as ARROWS WARRIOR, and right - as the subject of action, HE HAS STICKED. Thus the Etruscan spelling and a transliteration differs from Russian a little, and it is checked both conformity to the image, and duplication in Russian. With the other words our version of reading has two independent confirmations.

    So, we see, that besides three Etruscan expressions (from 5 words), written OBVIOUSLY there is a Russian support in which we have counted already 4 words written IMPLICITLY as elements of figure, as in the Greek images on vases. From this it is possible to draw a conclusion that PRESENCE OF THE RUSSIAN TEXT ACCOMPANYING THE IMAGE BOTH AT GREEKS, AND AT ETRUSCANS DRAWINGS WAS FASTER NORM, THAN EXCEPTION. It not simply exclusively important conclusion, it will help us very much with the further analysis.

    Who acts as the opponent warrior-Etruscan with the bow is to guess simply; certainly, it is a Romaer. The inscription at him on a helmet and a breast, ROME, does not leave doubts; hair of a head beaten out from under a helmet form Latin inscription ROMA, with the subsequent letter , continuation of this beginning of a word are the letters (THUNDER-STORM) traced on a bracelet of a hand. Thus ROME is (THREAT). So HE HAS STICKED, but, obviously, has missed the mark, and further he WILL NOT STICK, but WILL KICK. That is to 4 words revealed earlier were added 3 more so that near 5 obvious words the Etruscans have found possible to write 7 implicit. From this it is possible to draw other rather important conclusion: IT IS MORE THAN HALF ETRUSCAN TEXT ON FIGURE IS WRITTEN IN RUSSIAN BY CYRILLICS, BUT IT IS IMPLICIT. It means, that the ETRUSCAN TEXT IN FIGURES IS BILINGUAL, ETRUSCAN-RUSSIAN, BUT WITH PREVALENCE OF RUSSIAN COMPONENT. And, hence, in decoding of Etruscan language the researcher thoroughly familiar with Russian should be engaged.

    Inscriptions on playing dices

    As we remember, decoding of six symbols on playing dices Agnes Carr Vogin has named curious new interpretation. Therefore if till now we examined the important decoding of Z. Mayani now we shall consider his masterpiece about which with heat other researchers respond. Z. Mayani wrote: “Six the first figures form separate group. We find them not only on epitaphs (where the age of deceased or quantity of his children are written) or is specified in the Book of a mummy (where dates of periodically repeating religious ceremonies, quantity of gifts), but also on Etruscan playing dices, for example, are specified. In Etruria of them many copies were found. On pair such dices, named Campanari or Tuscan dices, instead of usual points six words were found out which I here have in alphabetic order and which in a unknown sequence correspond to numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 - CI, HYΘ, MAχ, SA, QU, ZAL» (MAY, p. 92-93). The researcher writes about words instead of figures as if he is convinced that Etruscans wrote instead of figures or points their verbal equivalent. Meanwhile, it is a hypothesis which itself should be proved first of all. Personally it causes the big doubts in me. I had to read a number of runica inscriptions on so called astragals or mutton dices for the most popular game in antiquity was the game in dices (and the cube represents only advanced version of such dice), and on them there were no figures, but indications? For example to miss a course, to go, to go in the special way, to leave from game etc. Most likely, similar indications should be put and on the Tuscan dice.

    Having in our disposal dices are various. On one pair of dices (“Oten dices”) there are following Etruscan words: I VA EST URTI CAIUS VOLOTE. And, at last, there are chess pieces on which as on ours points from 1 up to 6 are put, but an arrangement of these points variously. Ten of the playing dices and such variety! (MAY, p. 93). The given paragraph shows, that Etruscans all the same not so aspired to reveal number of the received marks for inscriptions might have other purpose that is why the certain system in assignment of marks was not. As if to words, the quantity of letters in which naturally grew from 1 up to 6, I see in it a set of the most important Etruscan lexemes which Z. Mayami for some reason has not wanted to comment. Namely: I there is a grammar conjunction AND (Russian ), BA (Cyrillic) is a preposition IN before some letters, E as I assume there is an infinitive of a verb TO BE (for the third party of a singular will be A), (under an accent letter ) - a verb in the uncertain form, whose value outside of a context is not clear for me, and, at last, - plural number from word VOLOT, a giant. It is possible that the sequence of the given words forms some sentence of type AND IN LIFE TO BECOME GIANTS.

    If to start with quantity(amount) of the points put on the opposite sides these dices with points can be divided into the following categories:

    ) 1 and 6, 2 and 5, 3 and 4. The sum of numbers of the opposite side) always makes seven.

    b) 1 and 2, 3 and 4, 5 and 6.

    c) On unique dice we see 1 and 6, 2 and 4, 5 and 3 (BUO, p. 406).

    To what type does concern Tuscan dices? It is a question.

    And the photographic image of these Tuscan dices, a subject of long and furious fight, in which took part the Etruscologists of all times (fig. 13) are here (MAY, with. 93-94).

    Inscriptions on two sides of playing dice
    Fig. 3. Inscriptions on two sides of playing dice

    I bring a photo of these Tuscan dices as cubes with put on it the Etruscan letters (A) and () and besides it I bring more contrast variant of the top edge of a dice (A) - as (B) and as usually, I take out aside my own comment of the read marks.

    The very first that is evident it is the central inscription by the Etruscan letters readable from right to left: all over again the letter K more to the right of central furrow, then hardly below and on itself furrow - the letter , on same letter as ligature on the right above is letter , more to the left and above the letter there is a letter A, at last still more to the left is present ligature from letters L and A. All together forms a word (THE MAN WHO THREW), clear to the Russian person without translation as the PLAYER THROWING DICE. Thus, probably, the second sense was also: THE MAN CONDUCTING GAME, such as the modern croupier. With other words, to throw dice after demonstrating of this dice side must not one of ordinary players but croupier himself.

    Further inscriptions as edges, framing the top side of a cube are read. On the left border on vertical sometimes also it is horizontal it is possible to read inscriptions: DO NOT PLAY ON STONES, PLAY ON THE TEMPLE. The inscription is written in Russian and translation does not demand. However it completely excludes that picture which to us was drawn by Z. Mayani: Etruscans played dices in noise of taverns, moistening a throat a kind wine from Laena; it was submitted by affable servants... It appears, as the inscription says, sometimes played in streets where dices threw on stones, but it is more often and more traditional - in a temple, and at all in a tavern. Hence, Mayani not only nasty reads Etruscan as inscriptions, but he may not be authority and on knowledge of Etruscan customs. With other words, the culturological component of his interpretation contradicts an inscription on playing dice.

    One more interesting detail of the given inscription is a presence of a preposition HA (ON) instead of B. Russian preposition B specifies closeness of a space (in a room, in the house), whereas a preposition ON - on an openness (ON THE FIELD). Expression ON with the word “temple” speaks well for that the Etruscan temple of that time, most likely had no a roof. The offer to play dices in a temple specifies that the temple of that time was just the centre of leisure - something like club of our days. For this reason games there not only were not forbidden, but opposite, were in every possible way welcomed. However, probably, floors of a temple were made of a stone; in this case to play on stones in dices it was not recommended.

    On the top edge other inscription - GOOD GAME is read. I believe that division on “good and bad” games in an antiquity corresponded to our division of games on usual and hazardous. In that case “bad” game is a gambling. The given game in dices to them did not concern, as was marked in appropriate way. The mark “good” game most likely made sense “is allowed for game in a temple”; certainly, gambling of such mark had no. I shall note, that the word GOOD existed already in times of Etruscans.

    Along the right side of a deepening the inscription THE TEMPLE OF RHOD, and also GAME lasts. In my opinion, the given inscription is extremely important, for beforehand it was not clear, which from three pagan temples (of Makosh, of Rhod or of Mara) was responsible for cultural leisure and entertainments. It appears a temple of the Rhod. Till now about such function of the given temple I had no data.

    Along the right edge of the letter form a word WORKSHOP and along a bottom on the right the words OF THE RHOD’S TEMPLE are given. It means that the given cube not only is approved by a temple of the Rhod and recommended for game inside a temple, but it is made in workshop of the given temple as well. This steal of the manufacturer is made duly other inscriptions on craft products. Thus, micro inscriptions of the given side give exhausting information on a place of manufacturing of a cube (WORKSHOP OF THE TEMPLE OF RHOD), about whether this game was allowed on the part of priests of a temple of the Rhod and, at last, about whether this game preferable of game in a temple of the Rhod instead of in the street.

    Though I have read, probably, not all micro inscriptions, nevertheless them it was collected the whole 15 words, and except for the basic word traced on Etruscan PLAYER THROWING DICE. What in this occasion thinks Zakhary Mayani whose decoding of words on given cube so has shaken others Etruscologists? We read: At once we notice, that only one number MAχ, it is written on both dices in the same direction while the direction of all other words varies. The conclusion was made from this, that MAχ, might mean “one”, number with which normal numbering on dices” (MAY begins, with. 94). What word from Z. Mayani's point of view is written on the top side of the left cube? Having touched all possible established by his predecessors and confirmed by him readings CI, HYΘ, MAχ, SA, QU, ZAL, we are convinced, that is the closest to a word KIDALA last word, containing letters - where it was accepted for Z, and letter , and last did not read. With other words from 6 letters he has noticed only half, and from the staying three one has managed to read incorrectly. It turns out, that only 1/4 part of Etruscan inscriptions has got in a field of his sight whereas other 15 inscriptions, Russian, have already passed by. If to count up quantity these not read letters their number will make 68 which are added to 4 in a word KIDALA. It turns out, that from Z. Mayani's 75 letters has found out only 3 whereas 72 it has not found out, and one more he has found out, but has read incorrectly. The fraction 3/75 is 1/25, that is 4 %. Such is the reading of the best etruscologist in his most wonderfully read inscription.

    Reading of other sides of the left cube
    Fig. 4. Reading of other sides of the left cube

    The small part of the same side is the left bottom corner, contains already sign target data, inscriptions WORKSHOP OF THE TEMPLE OF RHOD and THE TEMPLE OF RHOD as we see it in the following figure. Consideration of the forward side which are taking place below is of interest also. I have given its two images with a different degree of contrast. On the right from them, reading from right to left, it is possible to reveal inscription that is CLOSE. It means, that the participant at whom the top side contained the given word, should close the set of points. Other inscriptions of the given side which manage to be revealed on it is a GAME OF THE TEMPLE OF RHOD. Thus, the given game was not simply recommended in a temple of the Rhod, and its stock was made in workshop of a temple of the Rhod, but this game even was recommended as game of a temple of the Rhod, that is as some kind of this firm game. At last on the third side seen as a rhombus, the word is read from right to left THROW. It means, that now the cube should throw not croupier, but the same participant who threw it up to that.

    As we see, all three inscriptions, CROUPIER, THROW and CLOSE have game sense, but at all do not correspond to numbers of points.

    Let's proceed now to reading inscriptions on the second cube, omitting words already known to us, WORKSHOP OF THE TEMPLE OF RHOD for what we shall pass to the following figure. On the left lateral side we see ligature from lines of letters, however, having started on the right from below and gradually rising upwards, we may read word that is OPEN. Etruscan language concerns to number “A-spelling” (the pronunciation of A instead O, for example ATKRIVAY instead of OTKRIVAY) so instead of a prefix OT- we naturally see prefix -. Such the inscription has appeared quite naturally as up to it there was inscription (ZAKRIVAY) that is CLOSE. Probably, the player started to take a set of points with this moment, and, on the dropped out side of a cube, threw or he, or the croupier. The set of points was finished at the dropped side with the word . With other words, besides the given command cubes the cube with quantity of points which were set off only at presence of the given commands was thrown still; whereas after command ZAKRIVAY the player should expect the ending of game of the partners.

    On a forward side the big letters from right to left write three words, THROW ON GAME. To our surprise, presence of a pretext demands the Nominative case instead of Genitive one. However, we meet such state of affairs in modern Bulgarian language. The given inscription differs from the previous inscription that, probably, after loss of the certain quantity of points there comes turn of the following player whereas after an inscription THROW the same player continues attempts. Certainly, at an inscription THREW(-PLAYER) the game is continued by croupier, however for the benefit of the previous player, but then the course passes to the following player. At last, on the top side of the second cube it is possible to read an inscription BREAK, that means, that all gained points are cancelled; probably, it is the most terrible for the player the side of a cube. Thus, we now know all the six commands existing in the given game.

    Reading of key words on the verge of the right cube
    Fig. 5. Reading of key words on the verge of the right cube

    Now it is easy to see a mistake of Z. Mayani. He has wanted to determine the name of numbers on those cubes which did not bear them! Thus, his initial hypothesis was by us not only not proved, but also was denied most decisively. Moreover, he has still managed to read words THREW, THROW, THROW ON GAME, CLOSE, OPEN and BREAK as CI, HYΘ, MAχ, SA, QU, ZAL! Really a fantasy! Once again one can repeat, that IT IS CATEGORICALLY NOT POSSIBLE TO TRUST CLASSICAL READINGS OF WESTERN ETRUSCOLOGISTS!

    That, we shall sum up. In the book of Z. Mayani was present only 4 examples of the Etruscan inscriptions decoding together with initial figures - prototypes, and we have considered all. In the first example he has read word STRELOG as name ADETES, second and third words ON - as name KAON, action NE N has understood as noun ENKTEN. Words NO PNE, as well as the STUB, DEFILE, ETRUSCAN and ROME - THREAT he has not seen at all. Thus from 11 words it(he) truly has not read any, and under letters has truly read only N from 45 written letters, that is 4/45 or 1/11, about 9 %.

    It is possible to deduce and arithmetic-mean size from the all attempts of Mayani, having combined 9, 24, 4 and 3 percents (the sum will make 40) and having divided on 4. The result will be 10 %. It is the real productivity of READING (I do not speak any more about translation!). Is it a lot or a little? Try to take any printed text, remove from it in any order of 90 % of letters and then try to guess on the staying marks of its contents. Hardly it will be possible to you. But now it is possible to tell, as far in numbers the phrase “the Etruscan is not readable” was justified: on 90 %!

    From here it is clear that to take seriously Z. .Mayani's decoding or even to use results of his transliterations it is completely impossible.

    At the same time it became clear, that ETRUSCAN IS READABLE, and on Etruscan texts words are placed as simply Russian words as Etruscan, but rather close to Russian on texts (that is quite clear, as ALL-RUSSIAN language, or, Latin, OBSCE, was uniform all-European language), or, as a rule, in the texts there are Russian words more, than Etruscan one.

    P.P. Oreshkins readings

    Among representatives of a Slavic direction in Etruscology in the beginning was not Russian person but when they have appeared, the situation has changed. It is difficult to tell, in what side, as the reality always very different. Those voluntary epigraphists with which works I have got acquainted, it is impossible to attribute to number of scientists, they are enthusiasts who wrote briefly, but very keen, and were possessed by idea of that all Etruscan were Russian. At the same time, their any approaches appeared rather fruitful. One of them was Peter Petrovich Oreshkin (1933-1987) which has finished in 1962 literary institute in Moscow. In 1984 has issued in Rome the book under the name “Roma phenomenon. Russian from the immemorial time” where has offered some methods of reading and etymology texts of the most different origin. He did not assume, that will offer surprisingly seductive technique of very easy reading of ancient texts. So easy, that to it everyone may seize. Actually, his technique appeared incorrect though some values of Etruscan sounds he has guessed correctly.

    Now we shall consider a situation in which occurs terrible being MENEOKA, showing tongue – namely so, MENEOKA, read P.P. Oreshkin a standard inscription which in classical Etruscology read as MENRVA. The question is the image on an Etruscan mirror where it is possible to see the naked young man and the woman with a spear, declined above the cut off head. The head really shows tongue. On the image there are two obvious Etruscan inscriptions. Now we shall ask to speak of P.P. Oreshkin: “From the right to the left we see inscription VEDME. The inscription on the right in the given transcription represents special interest: from left to right it is read AKOENEM. All inscription is read the WITCH DAMNED (here the word WITCH is a masculine gender). Figure represents destruction of a witch, but this WITCH is werewolf, as well as an inscription. Here too there is inversion MENEOKA that is CHANGING, sometime MONEY-CHANGER. However SICKLE in a hand, LEG, bent in a knee (at the left below), SIGN on a leg, HARE EARS on a knee, HARE HEAD (on the right), BOWLER, the SPEAR may be not only letters, but also alchemical SYMBOLS during preparation of the potion destroying MENEOKA (R, s. 16). I have given reading of Oreshkin the image of a mirror as VEDME and MENEOKA.

    Oreshkina's and mine reading inscriptions on a bronze mirror
    Fig. 6. P.P. Oreshkina's and mine reading inscriptions on a bronze mirror

    So, the first Etruscan word is actually (SHEDSLE), that is literally GONE, the PASSER - BY, but not at all VEDME. And the second Etruscan word was not at all frightened AKOENEM-MENEOKA, but (ZHENEDKA) that is WOMAN. The cloth crease under the right hand of the young man are read as THAT IS AN ETRUSCAN, and “natural” anatomic figure on a breast is read HAS CREATED, creases under the left hand form a word ROME. On bowler and under a bend of the right knee it is possible to read AND HE IT, and folds of a raincoat behind of legs form word (CAN DESTROY). The tattoo on the cut off leg says (STAKE), and the left half of cut off head (from the spectator on the right) is read as IN ROME.

    Thus, AN ETRUSCAN PASSER-BY knows that is doing: AN ETRUSCAN HAS CREATED ROME, AND HE IS TO DESTROY IT. A STAKE INTO ROME! As if to the woman crease on her dress, they explain that she is from ROME, and the line of lines at a level of her foot all over again from left to right (a preposition ON), and then from right to left form the text , differently THE WOMAN OF ROME has risen TO THE ETRUSCAN AID. So there is not any situation of creation of a medicine against MANIOKA. On the contrary, tongue has put out Rome. It also is threatening with danger.

    Before us again is a political caricature to Rome; I am shaken with Russian words: AN ETRUSCAN HAS CREATED ROME, AND HE IS TO DESTROY IT. A STAKE INTO ROME! With other words, Etruscans believed that hold a situation under their control when helped Rome to grow and to arm. Probably, they have overestimated their child which having become independent, not only has taken authority in its hands, but also has forbidden eventually (at Caesar) to Etruscans (as well as to other Slavic peoples) to write on their native language and alphabets. They could write only in Latin, and only in a roman script.

    As we see P.P. Oreshkin, as well as his predecessors, too composes, in this case already in Etruscan language. So he is the visionary as well for from two words he has read both incorrectly. I believe, that if he fixed all the same even not simply sounding, but parts of speech and grammatical realities (the person of a verb, a case of a noun), he would not make elementary mistakes and could promote a little bit further.

    And now we shall check up the alphabet offered by us on a number of examples.

    Mirror from Vulchi

    This bronze mirror from Vulchi of IV centuries BC as though with the image of Kalhas is rather known and is given as light lines on a black background. Listing plots of mirrors, G.I. Sokolov are marked, that “on the other mirror from Vulchi, assemblies of Vatican, priest Kalhas in shape of a terrible demonic essence is declined on interiors thrusted victims, studying them and determining the Heavens omens (JUICE, with. 164). Obviously, word KALHAS is reading a single inscription from left to right, that is the first arrow is read as K, and the second - as X (KH). That KALHAS is a priest, “devil”, and also that he was declined above bodies of thrusted victim there is an interpretation of figure, instead of the mythological data. However at R. Block is represented on an insert the photo of mirror crude from a dirty with very thin cut engraving; here we meet a little bit other interpretation: “78. A bronze mirror from Vulchi. Khalkas is studying a liver of a victim. About 400 BC. Vatican Museum (, s. 188). Here, on the contrary, the first arrow is read as X (KH), the second as K. Such is the classical reading.

    I read (SAKLAU). But does the word exist in Russian? – No, It is not present. But there is a close word, (SOKLAL). That is in regional dialects it is possible to hear words and from verbs and . From these verbs there are also derivative words: the - (WAREHOUSE), - (LOAD). Other business, those now verb is superseded by a verb TO COMBINE and the stylistics recommend to tell us (I HAVE COMBINED), instead of . But word or is quite Russian, Slavic.

    A mirror from Vulchi about ostensibly priest Kalhas
    Fig. 7. A mirror from Vulchi about ostensibly priest Kalhas

    Thus, we have all bases to write down word (U brief as in Byelorussian) as Etruscan one with value HAS COMBINED. Thus as we see, the difference between Etruscan and Russian sounding does not exceed a difference between Russian and Byelorussian that is Etruscan language on the one hand is not Russian (and a number of researchers insisted on it), but Slavic, and on the other hand, it is quite accessible to studying with the help of such Slavic language as Russian is.

    Let's note also, that meanwhile the word is our working hypothesis which is necessary either to confirm or to deny. For check it is necessary to read all other words in the given figure of Etruscan mirror. But if our check will confirm a hypothesis, it will mean at once not only absence of name or , but also absence of a priest, no less than a guessing on a liver for something differently it would be written on the mirror like .

    And on Etruscan it will be not , but . First of all, it means A-spelling, as in modern Byelorussian language. The newspaper at Byelorussians referred to as SAVETSKA BYELARUS that is the SOVIET BYELORUSSIA, the surname of the NIGHTINGALE (SOLOVEY) is written on as . But also past time of a verb the Byelorussian persons write through , is more exact – through , for example, about the publication that it was , and that is REVIEWED, PLACED and PRINTED. Hence, if the Byelorussian has read word , he would be not surprised at all as it is necessary to write namely so.

    What we see on the image really and what inscriptions appeared implicit? First of all shall try to define a subject, which main character holds in a hand. It is not heart and not a liver, and an insole which he tries to enclose in a pair of the wooden boots standing on a working table of a workshop (only a working table has inclined legs for the best emphasis). I am surprised why anybody up to me has not guessed this simple and obvious idea. Boots are shown in a structure by socks from the main character, but of heels to him. Today such breed of footwear refers to as SABO. For this reason he is spoking: HAS COMBINED (an insole with a boot).

    But in that case it is possible to read that is written on an insole, the word ETRUSIA with a preposition S (With). And on boots the word of ROME is traced. So all is together united in a sentence that is HAS COMBINED ROME WITH ETRURIA. We see that after a preposition “With” the Nominative case is used, and in the rest from Russian it is not enough special differences. But the word of ROME can be read and on cloth creases, on its fringing. Thus, any priest is not present as an angel with wings; it is Rome which serves itself with boots. But as an insole he wants to put Etruria. The plot of the given caricature to Rome is those.

    However the given sentence repeats, though in another order: on a right wing it is possible to read words of ROM S ETRUSIA SAYEDINIU that is ROME HAS CONNECTED WITH ETRURIA. From this sentence I can gather confirmation to the understanding of word as HAVE COMBINED. One more synonym now is read, HAS CONNECTED. Thus, word is read quite right. This implies, that arrow was read doubly: in middle of a word as K, or even (syllabic value), whereas on the end of a word is those - as. So in middle of a word there is more ancient syllabic reading, but on the end the younger alphabetic reading is kept. Thus are right as Etruscologists of classical direction as G.S. Grinevich (who had suggested a syllabic reading). As if to reading of , the arrow designates not vowel of full formation semivowel .

    The third sentence is found at reading lines on the negative person of the Rome - bearded man. Here it is possible to read words WORKSHOP OF MARA (letter are an eye and an eyebrow, reflected from a horizontal mirror). And hair of a beard and moustaches in the positive image can be read as a word SKILFUL. It is already present jeer - ostensibly the person of Rome is a skilful product of workshop of Mara (Slavic goddess of death) that is on the person of Rome the seal of the goddess of death is visible. Hence, Rome as an angel with wings just about will die. Such have to be consequences of entry of Etruria to Rome under the insisting of Rome in opinion of Etruscans. As we see, on one obvious word it was necessary to write10 implicit words. And the main thing is that the sense of a caricature is absolutely other, there is not any scene of a haruspic guessing on a liver or on a heart, so we see only absence of skill to read that has resulted in completely fantastic interpretation of the given stage by investigators of art.

    The second Etruscan bronze mirror

    Certainly, the choice of samples for research can be any, however as the second example I have preferred rather interesting case where in Italian spelling there are written already more words, but besides it is very well visible as Etruscans were able to play with letters doing the words completely not readable. I borrowed this example from P.P. Oreshkin's book (, with 25)

    My reading of inscriptions on one of bronze mirrors
    Fig. 8. My reading of inscriptions on one of bronze mirrors

    Here is an opinion of P.P .Oreshkin about this inscription: “On the inscription on the right all letters are revolved aside, opposite to a direction of the letter (“mean trick-system”). The inscription is read from right to left, from the external side of a circle: , it IS TIRED. At the left: . All inscription is read , the TITMOUSE IS TIRED. As we see the man and woman do not aspire to catch a bird, fasterthey wish to support it! To the TITMOUSE at Etruscans the important role was removed. It was the BLUE BIRD, Bird of Happiness bringing in paradise (Etruscan AIRUM) the dead souls (, with. 25). Oreshkin holds back that he reads word from left to right, that in this word on his data one have to read follows not , but (that is ) and that in the second “word” the average letter is , and penultimate - not , but , that is . So it is really written in that sequence which was offered by him , that it is not meaningful.

    In my opinion, on the right it is written two words which are read from left to right: after the letter goes ligature from P and A which follows by so all word is entirely read as (PLAY), the imperative form of a verb from TO PLAY. As if to the second word it can be written down so: FACY. This word can be read differently. P.P. Oreshkin reads it from right to left as (LIPS), but from left to right it will be read where A of it does not perceived as ligature. If to connect his alphabet and to read letter F as K, word will turn out which is not meaningful in Russian. Basing on Venetian dictionary, it would be necessary to read ; on Peshich - or , on Zhunkovich - , on Wolanski - (?), under the classical alphabet - . All these decisions do not allow reading the given word which, probably, is read only that means more often. With other words, in Etruscan language there was sound , but it sounded approximately how in Russian dialect of Odessa, as (SHCH).

    Nevertheless, reading PLAY MORE OFTEN appears unchecked and demands confirmation or a refutation. I believe that it is discovered in the left inscription which is read not simply. If to read it from right to left it is isolated and B, then it is necessary to turn all inscription on 180 degrees and after to read which simultaneously has above hardly appreciable eyelet that is it appears at the same time and letter , and a little above it is possible to find letters A and X. At last, all comes to an end with the letter C in the given inscription. So, expression (I AM IN GAMES WITH) turns out. It is not completed, but from unit of clothes it is possible to subtract a word ROME. Thus, all phrases may be understood as I AM IN GAMES WITH ROME. At last, a head of a bird (it is better to turn to the right on 90 degrees) the hollow between a head and a wing, and hands of the young man and the woman together with a tail of a bird form three letters, a word RIM (ROME). So, the bird is Rome, the young man is in games with it, and the woman encourages his game, speaking PLAY MORE OFTEN. It is necessary to find out, who is who.

    The bush under young men is read on the right from below upwards, then from the top downward on the left, form phrase that is I AM ETRURIA.

    Then it is possible to read words on wings of “angel”, they say on a distant wing ROME, ETRUSCAN, PEACE GAME. Thus, the young man is a Roman Etruscan, and he plays with Rome quite peacefully. Thus the second figure on Etruscan language is thematically close to the first where in quality of an “angel” a Roman Etruscan acts too, but more adult. A little lower, on wing closer to the spectator we see words (STRONG CO-CREATOR), words, as well as the previous words on wings, Russian are traced. They, obviously, concern to the woman, but who is she? We find out her name, having read an inscription on several places of her dress. First of all, the bottom of the right sleeve contains inscription (ITALIA), further on a belt is read , that is THRACE, lower is word , that is the country SKLAVINOV is below possible to read, on a stool rather intricate zigzags write word , that is MOESIA, at last, on a fringe of her dress word , that is ETRURIA is possible to read. This list of the states is rather important, not so much for check of alphabetic reading, how many for understanding of the Roman history - as it seems to me; all the state without exception were Slavic. Only (ITALY) might have the mixed structure of the population, Latin-Slavic. With other words, the South of Apennine peninsula represented Latium which was gradually belonged to Rome, in its Northwest there was Etruria, in Northeast - Italy (Oscs, Umbrs), in the North of the Balkan settled down Thrace (and in the south was Grako-Sclavin state). Even to the north, in territory of modern Romania Moesia settled down. Here the mixed Dace-Slavic population too lived. As follows from the given figure, all together they appeared STRONG CO-CREATORS of Rome that is the countries which have created Rome; later all of them appeared occupied by Rome. And same fate has comprehended Etruria.

    As far as it is possible to understand the represented plot, the bird is a symbol of freedom. It was created as by Etruscan from Rome as all Etruria and all the Slavic countries. However freedom is only game in which play Etruscans with pleasure; she is a departing bird. So Rome against which all are directed Etruscan graphic plots, enables to Etruscans only to play freedom, but to not use to it really. Nevertheless, peace games with Rome were encouraged by Etruria.

    In this plot a ratio of obvious and implicit words other: 6 words are traced obviously and 16 are implicit; and though the ratio for the benefit of implicit is not so such striking, as in the first example it is implicitly written about three times more words than implicitly nevertheless. But here reading letters F = , Y = and = is shown, and also examples of ligature drawing up. Besides it is seen as in the obvious text puts implicit, making some letters in a word and being the word written after an obvious preposition.

    The third bronze mirror

    In its occasion P.P. Oreshkin writes: “On the top (from right to left): — (CALL YOU). At the left (from the top downward) A – AND WHAT IS THAT? On the right (to the left): — (IN IT IS POISON!) All inscriptions are read: CALL YOU. AND WHAT IS THAT? IN IT IS POISON! The young man (on the right) obviously somehow aspires to warn about it a beard man, but that, probably, does not see and not hear him: at the left - Living, on the right - Died, and on a hand at him it IS DRESSED already ON A BRACELET (, with. 47). Figure is on the spot placed also. How may sit died, having thrust a finger into a mouth and looking in all eyes on present, it is conducted only by Oreshkin. Reading A is impossible, for according Oreshkin it is necessary to read A . And instead of it is necessary to read A, so the given researcher contradicts to itself. The inscriptions in frames I have turned mirror, however tracing have left without change. A word at the left really can to read as , through and with a reverser as it was made by P.P. Oreshkin, or trough , but if to accept reading = (APPOINTMENT) that is to admit vocalization C before B up to then the initial word (up to vocalization) should be that corresponds to Russian word MATCHMAKERS () faster. If this version is true, the ending of a plural number in Etruscan language will be not- (-), but -. Besides, if this version is true, three young men came to woo or to ask in marriage. If it so in the text on various creases there should be an explanatory whom they wish to ask in marriage. We find this explanatory: the man at the left sits on stones, and fingers of his right hand form a word ROME whereas shading on the stone top at increasing is read as the FOUNDER. So three grooms came to Rome as to the bride to ask in marriage. Understanding it as political allegory, we see, that arrangements of Rome achieve at least three countries, and it would be rather interesting to find out, who are they; almost for certain one of them should appear Etruria, and except for it even one Slavic country. Probably, it is those countries which meanwhile have not joined Rome.

    My reading of an inscription N 32 on a bronze mirror
    Fig. 9. My reading of an inscription N 32 on a bronze mirror

    Let's begin with the left groom. In left frame below there is word where it is possible to understand, that it begins with Etruscan prefix -that corresponds to Russian prefix OT-. Those it is possible to suspect a reverser of the ending -TE and to rearrange two these letters as -ET. At last, the letter C one can be apprehended in its sibilant variant as firm , and between and to put a connecting vowel . We shall receive word that is (HAS A REST). Really, given man sits on a stone.

    On his breast I have taken out an inscription on the field on the right; it begins with letter E and one has two letters , written one above another. I read this inscription from left to right as (Hellene) that is the GREEK. Thus, the Greek wishes a hand of Rome as bride that, generally speaking, is clearly; we know from a rate of a history that the culture of Rome was partly caused by culture of Greece. It is very interesting him skirt. If to read the second line of leather overlays, the word (CHORUS) will turn out that are agricultural DISTRICTS. But a word CHORUS is Greek instead of Etruscan. But the first, top line of leather overlays may be read as two words - (CITY – TEMPLE), at last, the bottom edge of a fringe we can reed as word (OF PRIAM). I believe, however, that it is not the direct name; according “Iliad” of Homer the city of Priam was Troy. So, the Greek from Troy “has rest”, that he also would likes enter in contractual attitudes with Rome, but actively to achieve it does not want.

    Now we shall consider the central groom. On the right part of a central young men breast on the right, in a column, it is possible to read words (up legs) TO (THAT), and (AN ETRUSCAN). And in area of the bent elbow of the left hand - words (FROM CRETE). Thus, during Trojan War of Greeks or for some centuries later indigenous population of Crete was, as the given picture says, Etruscans. So, our assumption was justified, really, one of characters was an Etruscan, but not Roman (Latin) and of Crete. As a matter of fact, a Roman Etruscan has no sense to seek in marriage for this Etruria already was part of Rome (that is Etruria became his wife). And another Etruscan state such marriage of convenience might appear rather favorable. However his position was not active; and though his behavior is not explained by the appropriate inscription, but already that he only touches are precise, speaks faster about a pray, than about matchmaking. Though the subject in his hand can be accepted and for a bracelet for the bride.

    Let's notice, that he is shown against the Greek, as usually for Etruscans on the mirrors, naked, though in a raincoat; probably, it was his role.

    The right character sits too, as well as the Greek; the inscription above him with Italian letters says either , or , or even . The first, that occurs, this value EXPECTS. It is possible to think that here there is a reverser and to rearrange last letters that will give or . At last, if to be solved on reading of first three letters as and rearrangement B after that is on a long reverser; the word given thus can be transferred as that is where final sound T is transferred vocalized. Now it is necessary to understand, who of whom ; I believe, that not the right character who sits silently and observes it, but also not the Greek; the most active position has the young Etruscan men, turned with face to the Greek. Thus, Etruscan wins dispute for a hand of the Roman bride of the Greek or, from the point of view rather expressive stylistics, (THROW OUT) him as the groom. With other words, for the period of creation of a mirror the preference of Rome was declined on the side of Etruscans from Crete, instead of Trojan Greeks. However, as it seems to me, this third word all the same characterizes the groom on the right, sitting with a finger in a mouth in a pose of EXPECTATION. Besides word is very expressive lexicon, slang which in modern value of words included in it hardly existed in antiquity.

    But who is the last from the grooms? First of all we know the crease at brushes of hands have a lot of information; a fragment near the left brush at its turn on 90 degrees to the right gives the text traced from right on the left; at it with a normal turn word that is , traced by runica, and then the word O is read all over again. Thus sitting young men is represented as EAST RUS. It would be very curious to understand, which namely the geographical region or ethnos was understood in times of Etruscans as East Russia. Our curiosity may be satisfied with the answer which is written in a literal sense on a breast: reading it from right to left from a head and the left shoulder of the young man up to his right shoulder, we get the word . This result is completely unexpected; it turns out, that whether KRIVICHI lived in antiquity, in times of Etruscans, or as a number of researchers believes, historians cut out one millennium from a history of Europe, so real III century AD might fall to histories of the Western Europe on the VII century BC of conditional antique history, and KRIVICHI quite might know Etruscans, and Etruscan might know KRIVICHI. With other words, East Russia as follows from the given inscriptions was understood as later Byelorussia - Lithuania, but not the future Moscovia. And, at last, extreme important is the short inscription on a field of attire on a right hip; at turn on 90 degrees to the right the word HOUSE there is read. Whether means it, what as the HOUSE Etruscans understood East, White Russia of KRIVICHI? In that case it would explain as A-spelling as explosive sounds such as DZ, and the ending of verbs on U brief. Moreover, on crease under knees it is possible to read words A and (OURS). A phrase turns out : A - , that is KRIVICHI: IT (IS) OUR HOUSE, EAST RUSSIA.

    In any case East Russia was understood, probably, as Baltic lands and a part of the grounds to the east from it. But if KRIVICHI appeared as the HOUSE of Etruscans then it is clear why Etruscan from Crete (THROW OUT) of the Greek or why KRIVICH EXPECTS: the OWN is always more preferable than another's. Hence, from the given figure follows, that despite in spite of the certain advantages at the Greeks, connected with Trojan war and with city of Priam, a hand of Roman “bride” most likely will be given to the Etruscan from Crete. We shall notice, as Greeks, as both Etruscans and KRIVICHI in this figure are considered as allies of Rome and even compete with each other, achieving more and more close affinity to this whimsical “bride”.

    For me relationship of the Etruscans with KRIVICHI and furthermore the understanding of East Russia as HOME of Etruscans was revelation. It turned out, that not only on A-spelling and DZ-spelling the Etruscan language reminded Byelorussian, but namely Etruscans were natives of East Russia so their language may be with good reason enlisted in group of East Slavic languages alongside with Russian, Ukrainian and Byelorussian. And as the Ukrainian language is O-spelling, and in Byelorussian A-spelling is shown more strongly than in Russian (and there is YA-spelling as well, for example the Russian word DEVUSHKA (A GIRL) pronounces as DZYAUCHINA), the Etruscan language appears most closely to Byelorussian.

    In the given text where on three obvious words we could find out 18 implicit, reading letters and was confirmed and revealed that reception of a reverser on Etruscan inscriptions is rather actual, due to what each word becomes a rebus. Thus there is an impression, that similar reversers were done meaningly that Romers might not understand the contents of the Etruscan texts which were directed just against Romers. And so far as they applied graphic allegory, and also pictocryptography, they naturally should take care of elementary protection of the obvious text as well, one of which ways is served with a reverser.

    The fourth Etruscan mirror

    Here Oreshkin is short: “Up is , APPOINTMENT. At the left , WAS. On the right - the same N in shape of the guard of a next world; the inscription, however, is read MENLE, that definitely MONEY-CHANGER. It confirms also figure. MENEOKA-AKOENEM it is quickly interested in enters balls which the woman has hidden in a sleeve. Speech, probably, goes about their exchange for minutes of appointment (, . 23). Here except for word I can not agree with Oreshkin in anything. First of all, money-changers do not go in a helmet, in an armour and with a sword so in figure the soldier is represented, instead of money-changer. Probably, he offers to the woman opposite one more bracelet from spheres, but in any way is not interested in her spheres, and she of nothing hides in a sleeve. It is false treatment of a graphic plot. Also there is no MENEOKA. The first Etruscan word is familiar to us, which was pronounced, probably, . But farther I change reading of Oreshkin for another. So, instead of I read two words (IT IS A FAULT), and the second word is not finished and I find its continuation on a ringlet of the right woman, and this ringlet should be turned on 180 degrees and then to proceed to the left and here there is already nothing to turn. Then the end of a phrase is read: that is all phrases will be , ! (I AM GUILTY, I AM!) With other words, I AM GUILTY, GUILTY! Moreover, about this guilty woman who is taking place in figure at the left, it is possible to read the small explanatory. We immediately find out it, having considered creases going along back of the woman (I turn this fragment on 90 degrees to the right). There is read here TO , and the creases under a hand, beginning from a back and along a breast, mean , and hardly below, on a belt near the left hand - A ; at last, crease on a knee of the left hip, from right to left, as word . Seeing the words and we can guess that these words are Etruscan ones. So, the sentence is THAT IS AN ETRUSCAN WOMAN, BUT NOT FROM ETRURIA, FROM LATIUM AND TOSCANIA, and Etruscans lived in a number of the geographical places populated by Latins.

    A mirror with the soldier and two women and my reading of inscriptions
    Fig. 10. A mirror with the soldier and two women and my reading of inscriptions

    On a hem at the central character the name is written: . Probably, it is connected by the origin to a geographical place Apulia. However who exactly was of Apulia on ethnic origin is visible from the explanatory formed creases of a fabric on a belt if to turn a belt on 90degrees to the right. Then three letters there will be located in a column one above another, the others near to them. The word is read as (ROMAN WOMAN). Thus Apulia is the Roman (living in Rome) woman.

    <>Creases under a belt on hips of the Roman women form words (FROM THE EAST), but they concern, probably, to the soldier; fabrics near which left hand at turn on 90 degrees to the left form words (THAT IS AN ETRUSCAN). So, before us is not simply the soldier, but he is AN ETRUSCAN FROM THE EAST. The preposition further follows U which, probably, concerns already to the following phrase readable in the same place - (AT PROCURESS-SLAVIC WOMAN). So, as procuress is repenting Etruscan woman, she is Slavic woman by origin and wants to take acquaintance of an Etruscan man with the Roman woman. But as she counts herself guilty, hence, the sanction to such connection of Rome and one of east Etruria she has not received. So, in the given text we see direct confirmation of our representations that Etruscan were Slavs, so it is written on the mirror though implicit.

    The inscription on Etruscan on a board of the soldier says at reading from right to left: , and we immediately find out in it a word from previous mirrors E that is I AM A GROOM (which there stood in genitive case), but without a designation vowel which we shall add from ourselves, . But here it is designated vowel E which drops out in a genitive case, and we have the right to write the given word completely, . We shall name such form of a spelling full. And all forms of a spelling with the sounds added from us we shall name incomplete. Incomplete a spelling strongly complicate readings, however for Etruscan themselves it was clear how to read the full word.

    Let's notice, that we in our writing frequently use incomplete forms too when, for example, at lecture, we write St instead of Sanctus, BC instead of Before Christ or AD instead of Anno Domini etc. (a word “etc” is the same conditional reduction). Simply one people shortens words with one method, another with another one. P.P. Oreshkin counts this reserve of one of mean tricks of Etruscan language.

    Reading of inscriptions in the bottom part of the same mirror
    Fig. 11. Reading of inscriptions in the bottom part of the same mirror

    A number of creases, however, has remained is not read. They are clothes creases on a hem and figure of lacing on sandals. First of all we read creases of a hem of the left character. Two very important words for Etruscan language are read here: they are a name . Though they are written by Cyrillic, their language is Etruscan one, and they mean as it is easy to guess ETRUSCAN LANGUAGE. Traditional Cyrillic is possible to write two Ukrainian words as well, namely I that just means the UKRAINIAN LANGUAGE. This word MOVA exists in Byelorussian language too. We shall notice, that in Etruscan writing of word ETRUSETSKA the combination of TS is transferred as (letter T with a skew of a roof to the right), that is as so here we have a Russian spelling of Etruscan word. It is again Etruscan –Russian pidgin, VOLSCE (it is not OBSCE e.g. -, ALL-RUSSIAN, but of VOLEVA RUS, e.g. OF FREE EURASIA), but already it is shown that are written by Cyrillic the Etruscan words.

    Generally speaking that we sooner or later shall find out a word designating Etruscan language, it was obvious. And variants at it were two: whether a word LANGUAGE (or , as it is on Bulgarian), or MOVA. The second variant was realized, that besides pulls together Etruscan with such East Slavs as Ukrainian and Byelorussian. At the same time, the name was designated of that we research in investigated language: it is (ETRUSETSKA MOVA). The truth, all the same remains small probability of that the given word collocation is written not on Etruscan, but in commenting Russian

    Hardly more to the right it is possible to read a word TO (THAT) (from right to left), the bottom of a hem and bow on lacing of a sandal of the right leg is a recurrence of word (LANGUAGE), and on similar lacing on the right leg we see the words , (IS DIFFICULT, BUT NATIVE). Thus, the sentence of the common character is received, - , (ETRUSCAN LANGUAGE IS A DIFFICULT LANGUAGE, BUT NATIVE). We shall notice, that Cyrillic spelling of Etruscan words gives the invaluable information on real sounding this speech for here there are no conditional reductions and rearrangements of letters as in Etruscan spelling. Further words are read on one line, since lacing stops at a level right of the left character: (AS THE LANGUAGE IS ALIVE IN NATIVE ETRURIA), that it is possible to translate as FOR LANGUAGE IS ALIVE IN NATIVE ETRURIA. Thus, Etruscan areas of Latium and Tuscany are understood as procuress in the broad sense of the word as artful and first of all a mercenary connector of peoples with Rome, including Etruscans, but Etruscans are glad to that in native Etruria, despite of the Roman sovereignty, Etruscan language continues to live all the same.

    Let's pay attention to the conjunction: the conjunction BUT as well as in Russian, there is a coordinating one, but oppose on character whereas conjunction O is the subordinating conjunction, having wide sense: FOR, AS, BECAUSE. We shall take into account it at work above other texts.

    From the point of view of a ratio of the obvious and implicit text the situation repeats: on three obvious words in figure is present 37 implicit. Perhaps, it is the longest text from all read. From this it is possible to draw a curious conclusion: BASIC TEXT OF ETRUSCAN MIRRORS IS WRITTEN IMPLICITLY.

    As to features of Etruscan spelling we here have seen existence of sound in word whereas the letter here was absent. With other words, Etruscans prefer to write incomplete forms there where they are sure in correct reading.

    Urn-hut from Alban hills

    For check of existence of letter such most interesting monument as a terracotta urn-hut from Alban hills with “cut geometrical pattern” (, c. 76 fig. 9) for the asymmetrical pattern is an obvious inscription. About given monument R. Block writes so: “In what condition of culture and the common development there was a Tuscany between 2000 and 1000 years BC when here have appeared Etruscans? Certificates were kept, that here, as well as on all Italy, there was a civilization of a bronze age. About 1000 BC on peninsula the new wave of aggressors was carried by. They have brought with themselves technology of processing of iron with which help the indigenous population was inverted in slavery. During this first Iron Age the major manned centers were whether to the north from Apennines on Padan plain, or in extensive area in the neighborhood with Latium, e.g. in present to Tuscany and Umbra. There was extremely active civilization there which is accepted for naming Villanova, on the name of Villa Nova, small villages near Bologna where during excavation the first traces of its existence were found out.

    This Villanova civilization is inherent in this some rather characteristic features. Up to us very few rests of Villanova villages and constructions have reached. Investigating tombs, it is possible to find set of traces of this civilization. Basically, at least up to 750 years BC, the Villanova citizens cremated dead men and ashes placed in urns usually biconic forms which occurs till 1000 BC in ceramics of a bronze age, and now becomes standard and widely widespread. These urns are rather rough and represent that Italians name impasto - ceramics from dirty, it is bad burnt clay. Urns have one or two handles, and that are in tombs, are closed by the small cover turned by the bottom part upwards. Sometimes this cover is replaced with a helmet with the big crest from sheet bronze. The sense of this ritual is obvious. A cup or a helmet schematically and roughly represents a head of the deceased. Such was the modest beginning of a funeral sculpture which as we shall see, has received a wide circulation on Etruscan cemeteries. However in Latium and especial in area Albano, ashes of the deceased placed not in biconical urns, but in the urns having the form of a herder hut (fig. 9). They and refer to us as urns-huts. Many similar subjects are found in Rome, in particular, on a huge cemetery which in the beginning of XX century was dug out on the Forum by the Italian archeologist Boni.

    Urns-huts, obviously, were done on a sample of the real huts. These modest subjects give us representation about huts in which the first inhabitants of the Roman lands at tops of seven hills - these Latin or Sabin shepherds lived. These first citizens of Romul and of Rome, should be, order simple life of primitive shepherds. The archeologists, who have opened the rests of Villanova settlements, enabled us to imagine early stages of existence of Rome more clearly. There is nothing is more instructive, than similar check of a legend by a history...

    My reading of inscriptions on a urn-hut from Alban hills
    Fig. 12. My reading of inscriptions on a urn-hut from Alban hills

    Ceramic and bronze Villanova subjects decorated long time the simple geometrical pattern consisting of straight lines or broken lines, zigzags, triangles and swastikas. With time the decorative elements engraved or drawn, become more complex and magnificent. In middle of VIII century BC we observe changes in customs and rituals. The deceased henceforth not always are burnt; there is and extended a ceremony of the putting to earth (, c. 74-76, 77). Generally speaking, the ceremony of cremation was inherent in Slavs so to indirect attributes the Villanova culture may be Slavic. Besides to the monuments of cultures belongs the Capitol wolf so “the subject of Romul and Rem may appear not Latin and Sabine shepherds, but Etruscan ones also. At last, the kind of a urn-hut reminds me modified dolmen (Slavic “Temple of Mara”) or Russian “dead home”, rather than inhabited construction without windows, and the main thing is that this hut is without an aperture for an output of a smoke more. The house without the fireplace is uninhabited. So is an urn, not at all hut of a shepherd, but an exact copy of the funeral crypt pushed on a bolt. Besides on the nearest roofs ridge of this “hut” the syllabic mark of M turned head over heels, and on distant very much stylized mark (flattened extremely out) is looked through, that creates runica word , that is . From here there is an opportunity of that a geometrical pattern is not at all a pattern, but an inscription, and an Slavic inscription. For the proof of it it is necessary to read, what I do begin.

    First of all, the inscription at the very bottom of a roof is allocated where the bottom part of an ornament forms three letters readable from left to right, -. It suggests, that before us - the ending of word , and that the beginning of this word is put as other letters developed differently in the top part of the same line. And it is valid, we find letter in a lying kind above the letter K, merged with it in ligature, and horizontals of this letter are inverted downwards, instead of upwards so at turn they due to give not , and . Letter T is merged in ligature with the underlying letter C, letter P - with letter , and the letter U lays in a horizontal plane as a part of ligature C and T. Thus, word here is really written, and written by Cyrillic. Thus our assumption is justified, and culture Villanova may be understood as early Etruscan culture.

    However skeptics may not convince the given inscription stylized under a geometrical ornament, they would prefer not florid, but the most normal inscription, in a line. Such on the given product is present on right bottom edge of hut door too and is lower, on a partition between a door and a floor. But for finding these inscriptions this fragment of a product is necessary for turning in color that is shown on a field of image on the right of the a cover. Very fine letters of Cyrillic, as well as on any Slavic ceramic products, it is possible to read under a door of an inscription WORKSHOP OF MARA (field on the left of a cover) and on bottom edge of the door (right of a cover). We shall notice that turnaround here is shown with the two features: it is unwrapped to the left and has round form.

    To the left of inscription ETRUSCANS Cyrillic on a cover locates two marks in which I see ligatures of runica marks, and as well as the top line of Cyrillic is fixed sideways to the left. Namely: the right mark contains ligature of marks and , and left - marks , (), , T and , that gives inscription , that is FROM CHERVETERY. It is the extremely important inscription in all senses. From the point of view of a history it turns out, that Rome was occupied in the beginning of its history not by Latins and Sabins, but Etruscans from (present city of CAERE), from the nearest to Rome Etruscan citiy. Further, we see the first high-grade inscription by runica on Etruscan on a product, containing five syllabic marks. G.S. Grinevich and A.Dmitrienko assumptions that Etruscans wrote Slavic syllabic marks thus are justified; however by mistake these researchers tried to read a syllabic way with the syllabic reading of Italian letters and did not search for marks of genuine runica. It turns out, that three centuries prior to bloom of own culture, approximately in 1000 BC Etruscans used on the letter Cyrillic and runica as all Slavic peoples. At the same time, they did not use the Italian letter. Why? Probably because it DOES YET NOT EXIST.

    I believe, that it have thought up just by Etruscans, however while this assumption at me has no direct proofs. At last, it turns out, that the city of Cherveteri existed at least three centuries prior to Rome; its name is interesting, it consists of two words: (WORMS) and or . The word WORMS means RED (the red paint for painters was made from a sort of worms); till now in Russian so red play card color is designated; but that it is more important, there is word (RED) and the TCHERVONETS (100 rubles) with the same sense (the banknote was red). And from here there is a direct parallel to CHERVONAYA RUSSIA for this name designated SOUTHERN RUSSIA. Word or is reduction from ETRUSCANS; hence, we here have originally area name SOUTH ETRURIA, or instead of the name of a city.

    On given “hut” there are at least two inscriptions. One of them is above covers where the big letter is read. If thus to consider marks more to the right of it, representing partly ligatures, partly separate letters it is possible to receive a word (FEMALE). The same word is read at reproduction of letters of the column going at the left along a roof of the “hut”. The lowermost mark thus appears ligature which letters form a word (THE URN). So, before us THE FEMALE URN, that is a urn with ashes of a died woman. Thus, all 10 words of the given urn appear implicit.

    Now it is possible to return to the name as SOUTH ETRUSCANS. If there exist RED ETRUSCANS, and division into areas is copied from division of Medieval Russia, that, similarly to BLACK (Western) and WHITE (East) Russia should exist Black and White Etruria or, that is more exact BLACK and WHITE ETRUSCANS. Shall try to determine whether there were such names among the areas of Etruria. For this purpose we shall take advantage of a map of the Roman gains of Etruria (, c. 96, fig. 16).

    The Roman gain of Etruria
    Fig. 13. The Roman gain of Etruria

    By shading it is designated: 1 - first half of IV centuries BC, 2 - second half of IV centuries up BC, 3 - about 280 years BC. On a map it is visible, that the city of Caere – former Cherveteri is capital of southern area whereas there are two other areas to the north. At east area the central city appears (Veyi). This name is very similar to a word WHITE (Etruscans), only is replaced on , and - on . However in Greek language B in Middle Ages it begins to be made as VITA, that is the sound would be replaced on , and in the Spanish language and (B and V) do not differ. So B it might be replaced on V. The word FLOWERS on Spanish will be FLORES, and on Italian FIORI exact so that sound L is replaced on J and E on I. So phonetic development of a word WHITE might result it in sounding VEYI. As if to the western area words BLACK ETRUSCANS might be made as A where firm the citizens of Italia might apprehend as T (first sound of TCH). Then this word, , might phonetically change up to (TARK). Besides this here words might add IN OTHER LANDS. Together word collocation TCHARNY ETRUSCANS IN OTHER LANDS became word , and then (TARQUINII). The three-part structure Black thus was reproduced, Black, White and Red Russia that further has resulted in names TARQUINII, VEYI and CHERVETERI.

    Let's notice, that the same structure Saxons have reproduced when they have landed in Britain in VI century AD, having formed “Red” also (Southern) Saxony, “Black” (Western) and “White” (East), and these prefixes South-, West-and East-with word Saxony distances of a kingdom (after country) Sussex, Wessex and Essex. It is interesting, that word-formation here was maintained almost the same: the full word designating geographical concept and truncated up to one syllable name of the country. And as to more northern territory it appeared Northumbria, that is Northern Umbria; and just on fig. 61 Umbria lays to the north from the named three areas of Etruria (in Russia to northeast from White Russia laid Biarmia). So recurrence of division of Russia, the British Saxony and Etruria, probably, not casually, and reflects some standard system.

    Let's notice, that a part of the lands of Russia, what was occupied by Polans, referred to as that is FREE RUS. And whether existed FREE ETRURIA that is ? Yes, we too find such name on a map of Etruria, it is city of Volaterry, and R. Block notices: “Volterra, on Etruscan Velatri it is located along an abrupt hill in valley ” (, c. 13). Thus, phonetic development of a word was -- that is typical re-analysis. However why are here Polans? I believe, that if the basic part of Etruscans counted as their house the lands of Krivichi any part of the same Krivichi might live in territory of the next Polans and reproduce any geographical realities, for example the names of the same Polans in new territory. With other words, the territory of Polans might refer to as POLONIUM, and the territory adjoining to it as (the same word-formation, as in model --). In Etruria we find hardly other names of districts and cities: BOLOGNA (P spells vocalized as B) and , POPULONIA (O has passed in U as it is typical of the Polish language). On a map on fig. 61 Bologna is situated to the east of Pisa and has not gone in on a map. But approximately in the centre of this Etruscan Polonium are Volaterry, as (Free Etruscans).

    If this logic is true, on a way to Etruscan Polonium to the north of Black Etruscans (Terqui), on the road TO OTHER lands there should be the certain intermediate area occupied by ETRuscans and POLONIUM, certain ETRPOLONIA. It appears, such city conducting IN ET (P) ULONIA was, and referred to as Vetulonia. Most likely, there lived Etruscans, PULans and Krivichi that is EULCHI. And we too find such city, Vulchi. But Krivichi, probably, still remembered, that they are natives of Russia even if they have incorporated to their descendants Etruscans and Polans; and approximately at the same breadth as Vetulonia, but to the east, we find RUS+E+L+I = RUSELLI. And even to the east we find Porusye or, faster, POETRUSYE = Perusia = Peruja.

    Thus, the map of conquest of Etruria by Rome is first of all a map of expansion of Etruria to the north, or, being expressed by already got accustomed German term, Drang nach Norden (Nord-West). In what side there was a gain to understand easily: from originally very small and freakish, but obviously limited areas to the increasing, but limited conditionally, and to dim, to administrative areas. So was with Angles, Saxons and Juts occupied Britain (from small Kent right after ferries through Channel up to huge Northumbria it is far in the north) so was in USA with tiny states of New England and to enormous western states, with their administrative borders obviously lined on a ruler. So most likely, a gain of Etruscans has begun from the smallest territory of Red Etruscans or Cherveteri before creation of high-grade Red-Black-and-White Etruria. This high-grade Etruria also became a place of formation of actually Etruscan ethnos and Etruscan language and culture. And then there was an expansion not only to the north, but also and on the south, in Latium where Rome (later it began to enter not in the state of Red Etruscans as it is written on a researched Roman urn, but in the state of White Etruscan as it is marked on a map). It is possible, then Etruscans move to Crete and in other remote areas.

    The new wave of immigrants, Krivichi and Polans, demanded also new places for moving; having assimilated Etruscan culture including language, they, nevertheless, all the same differed from hereditary Etruscans and consequently in the names of new Italian settlements have kept their old ethnic names. Probably, here there was the three-part structure where province Vulchi (with cities of Orvieto and Bolsena, in last name it is guessed word , the BIG CITY) appeared “Chervona” Etpolonia; Vetulonia appeared “Black” Etpolonia conducting IN actually Etpolonia, and, at last, area RUSELLY-PERUSIA - more , that is faster Etruscanned Polonia, than actually by Etruria was reproduced.

    At last, the third wave of immigrants, basically of Polans, more not caring about reproduction of three-parts structure, wins the big territory, having named it Volaterry, and goes further to the north down to Bologna. Such the history of Etruria sees according to toponymics and a history of the Roman gains.

    Saying truth, it remains a question about the “Polans”: who they are, Polens or citizens of Kiev? The answer, probably, will be surprising: neither those, nor others. Really, if the city or district were named by Poles, they should name it Polsk or Polska. And second of the given names is realized in the today's name of the country (Polska rzeczepospolita ludova). To Polans (from a word POLYE through ) should have names of type Polyansk, Polyanska, Polyensk or, with the account of nasal vowels and losses of the first , something like Plensk, Ples, Plesnesk, Pliska. Last name belongs to city outside of Russia, taking place in Bulgaritn. But we have a word of POLONIUM where should live Polonynye, and the name of city should be Polonsk, Polotsk. Such city (Polotsk) really is present in Byelorussia.

    A map of Russia tribes in IX century
    Fig. 14. A map of Russia tribes in IX century

    On a map of Russia tribes in IX century we see, that Polochanye and Krivichi are neighbors, no less than their central cities - Polotsk and Smolensk. So, by names, Etruscan Polonium was formed from somewhere under Polotsk.

    However we shall return to inscription on the Roman urn. This inscription helps us to understand becoming some Italian-Etruscan letters. So, letter I has left from a similar mark of runica and meant simply a sound ; in graphic development it has received restrictive strokes from above and from below, but has left the quality; modern researchers frequently confuse such mark with the familiar mark where strokes turn to the present horizontal lines. Two II in succession are Ji, that is , however Etruscans the first began to apply to two sticks connecting lines that has resulted in a mark conterminous with Cyrillic .

    Further there is the firm sound transmitted on the letter as square variant of a tracing C follows; it too frequently confuses to other marks by Etruscologists. But the most interesting is that a mark of runica which looked as  became familiar for a designation of letter that differed from Cyrillic. It is very important for understanding as the inscription AIL (, ACHIL) Etruscologists persistently read as AVIL, and AVILS ostensibly means “YEARS”. Letter R was formed of syllabic mark RU, R, and in it there was a full conformity to Cyrillic; letter V from a similar syllabic mark with value , here again there was a full difference from Cyrillic; letter T - from syllabic mark T with value , that again corresponded to Cyrillic. Mark with reading in the Italian alphabet has not come. Thus, as a material for creation of the Italian alphabet Cyrillic with its updating from runica has served.

    Originally I assumed that a mark designates firm variant of as against the letter C which designates . However in word sound appears soft; so, this assumption has not proved to be true. Then, probably, the letter designates etymological sound , whereas C - sound , in ; however, additional researches and supervision are necessary for last statement.

    Thus investigation of pattern on the image of Roman hut appeared very fruitful.

    The small volume of given article does not allow to result a number of the additional examples confirming stated hypotheses. However the method of reading of implicit inscriptions is represented to the most perspective in studying Etruscan language.


    .. . . 1. , « », 1993, 321 .

    (Grinevich G.S. Pre-Slavic writing. Results of decoding. The encyclopedia of Russian idea . 1. Moscow, 1993, 321 p.) In Russian

    . . . . . , « » 2001, 224 .

    (Dmitrienko A. Monuments of the syllabic writing of ancient Slavs. Etruscan inscriptions. The disk from Phest. Linear A and B. Moscow, 2001, 224 p.) In Russian

    .. -. , , 1999,48 .

    (Yegurnov A.G. Etruscans wrote in Russian. Moscow, 1999, 48 p.) In Russian

    . . . , «», 2003, . 432 .

    (Mayani Z. Les Étrusques commencent à parler. Paris, 1956) In Russian translated from French

    .. . -. « », 2002, 174 .

    (Oreshkin P.P. Russian language from time immemorial. Sanct-Petersburg, 2002; first edition Rome, 1984, 174 p.) In Russian

    Pallottino Massimo. Testimonia Linguae Etruscae. Firenze, 1954, La nuova Italia editrice, 175 p.

    . . 700 . -. ,1987, 63 .

    (Rathje Annette. Gli Etruschi. 700 anni di storia e cultura. Regione Lazio-Italia. Dago, 1987, 63 p.) In Russian and partly in Italian